Djibouti: Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring Survey (FSNMS), April 2022 (Data collected in February 2022)

Key Findings

• The food insecurity of Djiboutians households has increased with10 percent compared to January 2020. Moderate and severe food insecurity affected 37.1 percent of the rural households and 9.7 percent of the urban household, equivalent to an estimated 124,359 people.

• There was an overall poor nutrition status of children below the age of 2 and 5 years, with a GAM prevalence of 12.7 and 5.5 percent, respectively.

• Households across Djibouti are affected by climatic and economic compounding shocks, affecting people in rural areas the most. The current drought has further deteriorated the food security of rural households.

• In the absence of agricultural production, households were heavily relying on market as the main source of food, both in urban (89-100 present) and rural areas (84-97 percent) making them volatile for price increases.

• A significant proportion (54 percent) of the rural households faced inadequate food consumption, a deterioration from 43 percent in January 2020. Inadequate consumption is the highest in rural areas of Arta, Ali Sabieh and Obock. Meals are predominantly made of cereals, oil/fat, and sugar. Consumption of fruit and vegetable is low, slightly better in urban areas compared to rural.

• The majority of households in rural areas were found to have a high to very high share of expenditure spent on food, limiting their ability to meet other essential needs. The highest proportion of these households was mostly in the rural areas of Tadjourah (75 percent), Ali Sabieh (74 percent) and Dikhil (62 percent).

• Overall, urban households have more diverse income sources compared to rural households, with Djibouti City leading in income diversity. The different income sources included wage employment (39-62 percent), petty trade (10-44 percent), and casual labour (9-27 percent).

• Approximately 14 percent of all rural households resorted to extreme livelihood coping strategies (crisis + emergency), ranging from 12 percent in Tadjourah, 14 percent in Ali Sabieh, 17 percent in Obock, and 21 percent in Dikhil. Begging, involving in illegal activities, selling productive/domestic assets, reduced expenditure on non-essential food items, send household members to eat elsewhere, borrowing money or food were mentioned amongst the coping strategies.

• Overall, 40.8 percent or rural and 28.6 percent of urban households adopted food coping strategies, including relying on less preferred food (38 percent) in rural and (23 percent) in urban areas. With 41 percent, borrowing food was the most used food coping strategy in Obock.

Source: World Food Programme

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